Students sometimes struggle with the Heine-Borel Theorem; the authors certainly did the first time it was presented to them. This theorem can be hard to. Weierstrass Theorem and Heine-Borel Covering Theorem. Both proofs are two of the most elegant in mathematics. Accumulation Po. Accumulation Points. Heine-Borel Theorem. October 7, Theorem 1. K C Rn is compact if and only if every open covering 1Uαl of K has a finite subcovering. 1Uα1,Uα2,,Uαs l.

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The Heine-Borel theorem does not hold as stated for general metric heeine topological vector spacesand this gives rise to the necessity to consider special classes of spaces where this proposition is true.

Views Read Edit View history. For a subset S of Euclidean space R nthe following two statements are equivalent:. Let S Birel be a metric space. Complete metric spaces may also fail to have the property, for instance, no infinite-dimensional Banach spaces have the Heine—Borel property as metric spaces.

We need to show that it is closed and bounded. Assume, by way of contradiction, that T 0 is not compact.


Heine-Borel Theorem

Warsaw circleHawaiian earring space. Hausdorff spaces are sober. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. By the property above, it is enough to show that T 0 is compact. Then S S is compact precisely if it is complete and totally bounded.

It is thus possible to extract from any open cover C K of K a finite subcover. Extra stuff, structure, properties.

All Montel spaces have the Heine-Borel property as well. Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet was the first to prove this and implicitly he used the existence of heihe finite subcover of a given open cover of a closed interval in his proof. Then at least one of the 2 n sections of T 0 must require an infinite subcover of Cotherwise Theorsm itself would have a finite subcover, by uniting together the finite covers of the sections.

Heine-Borel Theorem — from Wolfram MathWorld

This sequence is Cauchy, so it must converge to some limit L. For a subset S of Euclidean space R nthe theofem two statements are equivalent: We do so by observing that the alternatives lead to contradictions:. The proof above applies with almost no change to showing that any compact subset S of a Hausdorff topological space X is closed in X.


Pierre CousinLebesgue and Schoenflies generalized it to arbitrary covers.

This site is running on Instiki 0. This gives a proof by contradiction.

S S is closed and bounded. Let S S be a uniform space. The definition seems to be a bit unclear. Home Questions Tags Users Unanswered.

Heine–Borel theorem

Lemma closed interval is compact In classical mathematics: This subcover is the finite union of balls of radius 1. I was trying to learn analysis from Hardy a while ago, and I found it quite difficult due to his old fashioned way of speaking.

Even more trivially, if the real line is not endowed with the usual metric, it may fail to have the Heine-Borel property. Let us define a sequence x k such that each x k is in T k. What is the Heine-Borel Theorem saying?

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